Rocket Components

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Payload

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Outer Frame

Fuel

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Oxidant

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Pumps

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Engine

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Exhaust

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The Spacestellar Creations

The important constituents of a rocket are : Fuel, Oxidant, Engine, Pumps, Exhaust , Payload and its Outer frame.

- Fuel

To help the rocket move at great velocities, the fuel must be burnt at a high rate. The burning of fuel and oxidant produces hot gases. The mixture of the fuel and the oxidant is called is called the propellant. The fuel may be a solid or a liquid and is kept in a separate chamber.
The common liquid fuels used are liquid hydrogen, kerosene, hydrazine( N2H4 ) .Solid fuels are disadvantageous owing to their weight.

- Oxidant

The Substance that provides oxygen to burn the fuel is called an oxidant. Rockets can operate in the vacuum of space because the carry their own oxidants. The oxidant is kept in a separate chamber.
Some oxidizers rich in oxygen are hydrogen peroxide ( H2O2 ) or nitric acid ( HNO3 ).
When the fuel and oxygen are carried in separate chambers, the system is called is called a bipropellant rocket. When the fuel contains its own oxygen and is stored in a single chamber, the system is called is called a monopropellant rocket. Monopropellant rockets require very safe handling.

- Engine ( Combustion Chamber ) 

The fuel and the oxidant are forced together into the engine where they react. The burning of the fuel in the presence of oxygen produces hot gases.

- Pumps ( Valves )

The fuel and the oxidant are supplied in controlled quantities to the combustion chamber by the pumps.

- Exhaust ( Nozzle )

The fuel burnt in the combustion chamber produces hot gases. These gases are ejected backwards from the exhaust at very high velocities through a small opening called the nozzle. This is " Action ".
As long as the gas continues to stream out from the exhaust, the rocket continues to fly. This provide the " Reaction " leads the forward thrust to the rocket.

- Payload

A Payload is a scientific instrument, space - vehicle, or  a satellite carried by the rocket. It is usually placed in the nose cone, the front portion of the rocket. The ratio of the payload mass to the fuel mass of the rocket is called its Payload Ratio.

The streamline shape of the rocket helps to reduce the air-pressure and heat due to friction when it crosses the dense layers of the atmosphere. The outer frame of the rocket is made of heat-resistant materials.

- The Outer Frame 

3 D Animation of a Rocket

Animation Credit : MartianDays on Sketchfab